Diapositivas FLISOL 2012

On 28 abril, 2012, in Software Libre, by admin

Hola comunidad de software libre aqui les doy mis diapositivas sobre el tema: «Evolución de Software Libre».




Inicio de Linux

On 28 abril, 2012, in Software Libre, by admin

From:torvalds@klaava.Helsinki.FI (Linus Benedict Torvalds)
Newsgroup: comp.os.minix
Subject: What would you like to see most in minix?
Summary: small poll for my new operating system
Message-ID: 1991Aug25, 20578.9541@klaava.Helsinki.FI
Date: 25 Aug 91 20:57:08 GMT
Organization: University of Helsinki.

Hello everybody out there using minix-I’m doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won’t be big and professional like gnu) for 386(486) AT clones.

This has been brewing since april, and is starting to get ready.
I’d like any feedback on things people like/dislike in minix; as my OS resembles it somewhat (same physical layout of the
file-sytem due to practical reasons) among other things.

I’ve currently ported bash (1.08) an gcc (1.40), and things seem to work.
This implies that i’ll get something practical within a few months, and I’d like to know what features most people want. Any suggestions are welcome, but I won’t promise I’ll implement them.

Linus Torvalds torvalds@kruuna.helsinki.fi


Stallman Anuncia Free Unix

On 28 abril, 2012, in Software Libre, by admin

From CSvax:pur-ee:inuxc!ixn5c!ihnp4!houxm!mhuxi!eagle!mit-vax!mit-eddie!RMS@MIT-OZ
From: RMS%MIT-OZ@mit-eddie
Newsgroups: net.unix-wizards,net.usoft
Subject: new Unix implementation
Date: Tue, 27-Sep-83 12:35:59 EST
Organization: MIT AI Lab, Cambridge, MA

Free Unix!

Starting this Thanksgiving I am going to write a complete Unix-compatible software system called GNU (for Gnu’s Not Unix), and
give it away free(1) to everyone who can use it.
Contributions of time, money, programs and equipment are greatly needed.

To begin with, GNU will be a kernel plus all the utilities needed to write and run C programs: editor, shell, C compiler, linker, assembler, and a few other things. After this we will add a text formatter, a YACC, an Empire game, a spreadsheet, and hundreds of other things. We hope to supply, eventually, everything useful that normally comes with a Unix system, and anything else useful, including on-line and hardcopy documentation.

GNU will be able to run Unix programs, but will not be identical to Unix. We will make all improvements that are convenient, based on our experience with other operating systems. In particular, we plan to have longer filenames, file version numbers, a crashproof file system, filename completion perhaps, terminal-independent display support, and eventually a Lisp-based window system through which several Lisp programs and ordinary Unix programs can share a screen.
Both C and Lisp will be available as system programming languages.
We will have network software based on MIT’s chaosnet protocol, far superior to UUCP. We may also have something compatible
with UUCP.

Who Am I?

I am Richard Stallman, inventor of the original much-imitated EMACS editor, now at the Artificial Intelligence Lab at MIT. I have worked extensively on compilers, editors, debuggers, command interpreters, the Incompatible Timesharing System and the Lisp Machine operating system.
I pioneered terminal-independent display support in ITS. In addition I have implemented one crashproof file system and two window systems for Lisp machines.

Why I Must Write GNU

I consider that the golden rule requires that if I like a program I must share it with other people who like it. I cannot in good conscience sign a nondisclosure agreement or a software license agreement.

So that I can continue to use computers without violating my principles, I have decided to put together a sufficient body of free software so that I will be able to get along without any software that is not free.

How You Can Contribute

I am asking computer manufacturers for donations of machines and money.
I’m asking individuals for donations of programs and work.

One computer manufacturer has already offered to provide a machine. But we could use more. One consequence you can expect if you donate machines is that GNU will run on them at an early date. The machine had better be able to operate in a residential area, and not require sophisticated cooling or power.

Individual programmers can contribute by writing a compatible duplicate of some Unix utility and giving it to me. For most projects, such part-time distributed work would be very hard to coordinate; the independently-written parts would not work together. But for the particular task of replacing Unix, this problem is absent. Most interface specifications are fixed by Unix compatibility. If each contribution works with the rest of Unix, it will probably work with the rest of GNU.

If I get donations of money, I may be able to hire a few people full or part time. The salary won’t be high, but I’m looking for people for whom knowing they are helping humanity is as important as money. I view this as a way of enabling dedicated people to devote their full energies to working on GNU by sparing them the need to make a living in another way.

For more information, contact me.
Arpanet mail:


US Snail:
Richard Stallman
166 Prospect St
Cambridge, MA 02139


Primer Anuncio de Linux

On 28 abril, 2012, in Software Libre, by admin


Esta es la primera nota que da Linuz Tolvards para la primera distribución de Linux:


Notes for linux release 0.01

0. Contents of this directory

linux-0.01.tar.Z – sources to the kernel
bash.Z – compressed bash binary if you want to test it
update.Z – compressed update binary
RELNOTES-0.01 – this file

1. Short intro

This is a free minix-like kernel for i386(+) based AT-machines. Full source is included, and this source has been used to produce a running kernel on two different machines. Currently there are no kernel binaries for public viewing, as they have to be recompiled for different machines. You need to compile it with gcc (I use 1.40, don’t know if 1.37.1 will handle all __asm__-directives), after having changed the relevant configuration file(s).

As the version number (0.01) suggests this is not a mature product. Currently only a subset of AT-hardware is supported (hard-disk, screen, keyboard and serial lines), and some of the system calls are not yet fully implemented (notably mount/umount aren’t even implemented). See comments or readme’s in the code.

This version is also meant mostly for reading – ie if you are interested in how the system looks like currently. It will compile and produce a working kernel, and though I will help in any way I can to get it working on your machine (mail me), it isn’t really supported. Changes are frequent, and the first «production» version will probably differ wildly from this pre-alpha-release.

Hardware needed for running linux:
– 386 AT
– VGA/EGA screen
– AT-type harddisk controller (IDE is fine)
– Finnish keyboard (oh, you can use a US keyboard, but not
without some practise 🙂

The Finnish keyboard is hard-wired, and as I don’t have a US one I cannot change it without major problems. See kernel/keyboard.s for details. If anybody is willing to make an even partial port, I’d be grateful. Shouldn’t be too hard, as it’s tabledriven (it’s assembler though, so …)

Although linux is a complete kernel, and uses no code from minix or other sources, almost none of the support routines have yet been coded. Thus you currently need minix to bootstrap the system. It might be possible to use the free minix demo-disk to make a filesystem and run linux without having minix, but I don’t know…

2. Copyrights etc

This kernel is (C) 1991 Linus Torvalds, but all or part of it may be redistributed provided you do the following:

– Full source must be available (and free), if not with the distribution then at least on asking for it.

– Copyright notices must be intact. (In fact, if you distribute only parts of it you may have to add copyrights, as there aren’t (C)’s in all files.) Small partial excerpts may be copied without bothering with copyrights.

– You may not distibute this for a fee, not even «handling» costs.

Mail me at «torvalds@kruuna.helsinki.fi» if you have any questions.

Sadly, a kernel by itself gets you nowhere. To get a working system you need a shell, compilers, a library etc. These are separate parts and may be under a stricter (or even looser) copyright. Most of the tools used with linux are GNU software and are under the GNU copyleft. These tools aren’t in the distribution – ask me (or GNU) for more info.

3. Short technical overview of the kernel.

The linux kernel has been made under minix, and it was my original idea to make it binary compatible with minix. That was dropped, as the differences got bigger, but the system still resembles minix a great deal. Some of the key points are:

– Efficient use of the possibilities offered by the 386 chip. Minix was written on a 8088, and later ported to other
machines – linux takes full advantage of the 386 (which is nice if you /have/ a 386, but makes porting very difficult)

– No message passing, this is a more traditional approach to unix. System calls are just that – calls. This might or might
not be faster, but it does mean we can dispense with some of the problems with messages (message queues etc). Of course, we
also miss the nice features :-p.

– Multithreaded FS – a direct consequence of not using messages. This makes the filesystem a bit (a lot) more complicated, but
much nicer. Coupled with a better scheduler, this means that you can actually run several processes concurrently without
the performance hit induced by minix.

– Minimal task switching. This too is a consequence of not using messages. We task switch only when we really want to switch
tasks – unlike minix which task-switches whatever you do. This means we can more easily implement 387 support (indeed this is
already mostly implemented)

– Interrupts aren’t hidden. Some people (among them Tanenbaum) think interrupts are ugly and should be hidden. Not so IMHO.
Due to practical reasons interrupts must be mainly handled by machine code, which is a pity, but they are a part of the code
like everything else. Especially device drivers are mostly interrupt routines – see kernel/hd.c etc.

– There is no distinction between kernel/fs/mm, and they are all linked into the same heap of code. This has it’s good sides as
well as bad. The code isn’t as modular as the minix code, but on the other hand some things are simpler. The different parts
of the kernel are under different sub-directories in the source tree, but when running everything happens in the same data/code space.

The guiding line when implementing linux was: get it working fast. I wanted the kernel simple, yet powerful enough to run most unix software. The file system I couldn’t do much about – it needed to be minix compatible for practical reasons, and the minix filesystem was simple enough as it was. The kernel and mm could be simplified, though:

– Just one data structure for tasks. «Real» unices have task information in several places, I wanted everything in one

– A very simple memory management algorithm, using both the paging and segmentation capabilities of the i386. Currently
MM is just two files – memory.c and page.s, just a couple of hundreds of lines of code.

These decisions seem to have worked out well – bugs were easy to spot, and things work.

4. The «kernel proper»

All the routines handling tasks are in the subdirectory «kernel». These include things like ‘fork’ and ‘exit’ as well as scheduling and minor system calls like ‘getpid’ etc. Here are also the handlers for most exceptions and traps (not page faults, they are in mm), and all low-level device drivers (get_hd_block, tty_write etc). Currently all faults lead to a exit with error code 11 (Segmentation fault), and the system seems to be relatively stable («crashme» hasn’t – yet).

5. Memory management

This is the simplest of all parts, and should need only little changes. It contains entry-points for some things that the rest of the kernel needs, but mostly copes on it’s own, handling page faults as they happen. Indeed, the rest of the kernel usually doesn’t actively allocate pages, and just writes into user space, letting mm handle any possible ‘page-not-present’ errors.

Memory is dealt with in two completely different ways – by paging and segmentation. First the 386 VM-space (4GB) is divided into a number of segments (currently 64 segments of 64Mb each), the first of which is the kernel memory segment, with the complete physical memory identity-mapped into it. All kernel functions live within this area.

Tasks are then given one segment each, to use as they wish. The paging mechanism sees to filling the segment with the appropriate pages, keeping track of any duplicate copies (created at a ‘fork’), and making copies on any write. The rest of the system doesn’t need to know about all this.

6. The file system

As already mentioned, the linux FS is the same as in minix. This makes crosscompiling from minix easy, and means you can mount a linux partition from minix (or the other way around as soon as I implement mount :-). This is only on the logical level though – the actual routines are very different.

NOTE! Minix-1.6.16 seems to have a new FS, with minor modifications to the 1.5.10 I’ve been using. Linux won’t understand the new system.

The main difference is in the fact that minix has a single-threaded file-system and linux hasn’t. Implementing a single-threaded FS is much easier as you don’t need to worry about other processes allocating buffer blocks etc while you do something else. It also means that you lose some of the multiprocessing so important to unix.

There are a number of problems (deadlocks/raceconditions) that the linux kernel needed to address due to multi-threading. One way to inhibit race-conditions is to lock everything you need, but as this can lead to unnecessary blocking I decided never to lock any data structures (unless actually reading or writing to a physical device). This has the nice property that dead-locks cannot happen.

Sadly it has the not so nice property that race-conditions can happen almost everywhere. These are handled by double-checking allocations etc (see fs/buffer.c and fs/inode.c). Not letting the kernel schedule a task while it is in supervisor mode (standard unix practise), means that all kernel/fs/mm actions are atomic (not counting interrupts, and we are careful when writing those) if you don’t call ‘sleep’, so that is one of the things we can count on.

7. Apologies 🙂

This isn’t yet the «mother of all operating systems», and anyone who hoped for that will have to wait for the first real release (1.0), and even then you might not want to change from minix. This is a source release for those that are interested in seeing what linux looks like, and it’s not really supported yet. Anyone with questions or suggestions (even bug-reports if you decide to get it working on your system) is encouraged to mail me.

8. Getting it working

Most hardware dependancies will have to be compiled into the system, and there a number of defines in the file include/linux/config.h» that you have to change to get a personalized kernel. Also you must uncomment the right «equ» in the file boot/boot.s, telling the bootup-routine what kind of device your A-floppy is. After that a simple «make» should make
the file «Image», which you can copy to a floppy (cp Image /dev/PS0 is what I use with a 1.44Mb floppy). That’s it.

Without any programs to run, though, the kernel cannot do anything. You should find binaries for ‘update’ and ‘bash’ at the same place you found this, which will have to be put into the ‘/bin’ directory on the specified root-device (specified in config.h). Bash must be found under the name ‘/bin/sh’, as that’s what the kernel currently executes. Happy hacking.

Linus Torvalds «torvalds@kruuna.helsinki.fi»
Petersgatan 2 A 2
00140 Helsingfors 14




Topy Top

On 28 abril, 2012, in Casos de Éxito, by admin


Según el último ranking de pobreza del Perú, Huancavelica, es la región más pobre de nuestro país, con más del 85% de sus habitantes viviendo en pobreza; con problemas de desnutrición crónica infantil y en la que 3 de cada 7 habitantes son analfabetos. 

Esa, es la tierra de Aquilino Flores, un peruano más de tantos, pero al que su esfuerzo y poder de superación, ayudaron a romper con un futuro similar para sus hijos, logrando convertirlos en profesionales educados en las mejores universidades de nuestro país, totalmente lejanos de formar parte de esas estadísticas.

Aquilino Flores tenía 12 años cuando murió su padre, por lo que decidió emigrar a Lima.

¿Se imaginan a un pequeño de la sierra que, súbitamente, cambia cerros, nubes y aire puro; por una vida en una ciudad apurada, desordenada, llena de smog, ruidos y edificios? 

Pues el pequeño Aquilino, no se dejó amilanar. 
Allí, se dedicó a ganarse la vida limpiando autos en el Mercado Central; hasta que el destino, o la fortuna, como quieran llamarlo decidió ponerlo a prueba. 

Un día, uno de los dueños del auto que lavaba, un fabricante de polos en un taller informal le dio 20 polos para que los vendiera ‘cuando pueda’ y sin apuro. 

Aquilino, ¡Los vendió todos en un solo día! y pronto decidió dejar de lavar autos, para convertirse en vendedor ambulante de ropa en el centro de Lima.

Como ya deben de haberse imaginado, Aquilino, casi no tenía instrucción, pero como nos comenta Mario Vargas Llosa, en un artículo que publicó para el diario ‘El País’, de España; ‘era empeñoso, inteligente y con una intuición casi milagrosa para identificar los gustos del público<consumidor.

Fue así que de pronto, decidió diseñar sus propios polos con el gusto de sus clientes. 

Como era de suponerse, las ventas se incrementaron y ya no se daba abasto, por lo que recurrió a sus otros cuatro hermanos, para que se unieran a él en Lima.

Y la rueda de la fortuna, comenzó su giro.

De vendedores ambulantes, pasaron a comerciantes estables en el Mercado Central; luego, de intermediarios y vendedores, se convirtieron en productores; hasta que un día reciben un pedido de US$ 10,000 dólares de un comerciante de Desaguadero. 

Él nunca antes había visto tanto dinero junto, y a pesar del reto, se aseguró de entregar el pedido en los plazos estipulados. 

Este fue el inicio de un imperio. Actualmente, Aquilino Flores, dueño de Topy Top es el empresario textil más importante de nuestro país; con ventas anuales que ya pasan los cien millones de dólares, y con una cartera de clientes que incluyen marcas norteamericanas como ‘The Gap’, ‘Abercrombie & Fitch’, y ‘Urban Outfitters’; entre otras. 

Hoy en día, da empleo directo a unas cinco mil personas, e indirecto a 30,000; además, cuenta con treinta y cinco almacenes en el Perú, tres en Venezuela y varias fábricas. 

Sus hijos, a diferencia suya, han estudiado en las mejores universidades y contribuido como profesionales a la formalización y modernización de sus empresas, un modelo en su género y no sólo en el Perú.

La historia de Aquilino, aquel chiquillo que se tiró la infancia a la espalda y cambió sus juegos de niño por un balde y trapos sucios para convertirse en fuerte apoyo de su familia es un ejemplo de esperanza para nuestro país.

Es más, el progreso de nuestra patria, ha sido y es posible, justamente, gracias al esfuerzo y trabajo de miles de ‘Aquilinos’, que en escalas diferentes, han logrado transformarla.

Aquilino, es un ejemplo de la creatividad e ingeniosidad de la raza peruana,

Él, es el modelo de país que queremos: Orgulloso de sus antepasados y a la vez mirando el futuro con optimismo. 

Aquilino, sigue siendo sencillo; es un hombre bajito de 1 metro 60 al que sus hijos sobrepasan por 15 centímetros. 

Ahora él, sus hermanos, sus hijos y toda la familia Flores, de la mano con sus 5,000 empleados están trabajando arduo; y como era de esperar, ya que al fin y al cabo, ya lo hizo hace 40 años cuando decidió diseñar sus propios polos ahora, quiere empezar a exportar su marca. 

Por lo que no nos sorprendamos si pronto encontramos en esos ‘billboards’ gigantes en las ciudades norteamericanas, al lado de los ‘billboards’ de ‘Calvin Klein’ o ‘Abercrombie and Fitch’- anuncios de Topytop, el orgullo del Perú profundo, del Perú milenario, del Perú serrano; como también del Perú Moderno, del Perú Urbano y del Perú Cosmopolita.